Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully.
Managing the project scope is primarily concerned with defining and controlling what is and is not included in the project
Scope must be defined clearly and approved before work starts.Requirements are gathered from all the stakeholders.Gold-plating is not allowed.
Scope management term is used for Product scope as well as project scope
Things to know about Scope management
You must plan in advance, how you will determine the scope, as well as how you will manage and control the scope. This is part of scope management plan.
Scope must be clearly defined and formerly approved before work starts.
Requirements are gathered from all the stakeholder, not just the person who assign the project.
Requirement gathering can takes a substantial amount of time, especially on large projects.
Requirements must be evaluated against the business case, ranked and prioritized to determine what is in and out of scope
Project management contains following process:
1. Collect Requirement Done during Planning Process Group
2. Define Scope Done during Planning Process Group
3. Create WBS Done during Planning Process Group
4. Validate Scope Done during Monitoring & Control Process Group
5. Control Scope Done during Monitoring & Control Process Group
Collect Requirements: Tools &Techniques:Interview
An interview can be formal as well as informal. It is an common way to extract information from stakeholders by talking to them directly. Interaction can be face to face, telephonic or through video conference
Question are prepared and can be spontaneous. Interviews can be “one-on-one,” but may also involve multiple interviewers and/ or multiple interviewees.
Appropriate stakeholders should be identified for the interview based upon their experience, involvement and subject matter expertise.
Collect Requirements: Tools &Techniques:Focus groups
Focus groups involves prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts together, to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a proposed product, service, or result.
A trained moderator guides the group through an interactive discussion, designed to be more conversational than a one-on-one interview.
Collect Requirements: Tools &Techniques:Facilitated Workshops
Workshops are considered a primary technique for quickly defining cross-functional requirements
and reconciling stakeholder differences. Because of their interactive group nature, well-facilitated sessions can build trust, foster relationships, and improve communication among the participants which can lead to increased stakeholder consensus.
benefit of this technique is that issues can be discovered and resolved more quickly than in individual sessions.
Facilitated workshops called Joint Application Development
(or Design) (JAD) sessions are used in the software development industry. These facilitated sessions focus on bringing users and the development team together to improve the software development process.
In the manufacturing industry, Quality Function Deployment
(QFD) is an example of another facilitated workshop technique that helps determine critical characteristics for new product development. QFD starts by collecting customer needs, also known as Voice of the Customer (VOC). These needs are then objectively sorted and prioritized, and goals are set for achieving them
Collect Requirements: Tools &Techniques:Group Creativity Techniques
A technique used to generate and collect multiple ideas
related to project and product requirements.
Nominal group technique.
This technique enhances brainstorming with a voting process used to rank
the most useful ideas for further brainstorming or for prioritization.
The Delphi Technique.
A selected group of experts answers questionnaires and provides feedback regarding the responses from each round of requirements gathering. The responses are only available to the facilitator to maintain anonymity
Ideas created through individual brainstorming are consolidated into a single map to reflect commonality and differences in understanding, and generate new ideas.
This technique allows large numbers of ideas to be sorted into groups
for review and analysis.
Collect Requirements: Tools &Techniques:Group Decision Making Techniques
Everyone agrees on a single course of action.
Support from more than 50% of the members of the group.
The largest block in a group decides even if a majority is not achieved.
One individual makes the decision for the group
Collect Requirements: Tools &Techniques:Questionnaires and Surveys
Questionnaires and surveys are written sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a wide number of respondents.
Questionnaires and/or surveys are most appropriate with broad audiences, when quick turnaround is needed, and where statistical analysis is appropriate.
Collect Requirements: Tools &Techniques:Observations
Observations provide a direct way of viewing individuals in their environment and how they perform their jobs or tasks and carry out processes.
It is particularly helpful for detailed processes when the people that use the product have difficulty or are reluctant to articulate their requirements.
Observation, also called “job shadowing,”
is usually done externally by the observer viewing the user performing his or her job.
It can also be done by a “participant observer”
who actually performs a process or procedure to experience how it is done to uncover hidden requirements.
Collect Requirements: Tools &Techniques:Prototypes
Prototyping is a method of obtaining early feedback on requirements by providing a working model of the expected product before actually building it.
Since prototypes are tangible, it allows stakeholders to experiment with a model of their final product rather than only discussing abstract representations of their requirements.
Prototypes support the concept of progressive
elaboration because they are used in
iterative cycles of mock-up creation, user experimentation, feedback generation, and prototype revision. When enough feedback cycles have been performed,
the requirements obtained from the prototype are sufficiently complete to move to a design or build phase.
Collect Requirements: Tools &Techniques:Expert Judgment
Expert judgement is provided by any group or individual with
specialized knowledge or training, and is available from many sources, including but not limited to:
• Other units within the organization;
• Stakeholders, including customers or sponsors;
• Professional and technical associations;
• Industry groups; and
• Subject matter experts.
Define Requirements: Tools &Techniques:Product Analysis
Product analysis is used to analyze the objective and description of the product stated by customer and turn them into tangible deliverable. Product analysis is an effective tool For projects that have a product as a deliverable, as opposed to a service or result.
Define Requirements: Tools &Techniques:Alternatives Identification
Identifying alternatives is a technique used to generate different ways and approaches to execute and perform the work of the project.
Purpose of alternative identification is find a better way and process.
Create WBS is the process of refining and dividing project deliverables and project tasks into smaller components for easy management.
The work breakdown structure (WBS) is a deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work.
With each descending level of the WBS representing an increasingly detailed definition of the project work.
The WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the project, and represents the work specified in the current approved project scope.
Collect Requirements: Tools &Techniques:Expert Judgment